Guides

Antibody Labeling Guides

Absorption-Emission Table

Lightning-Link® is an innovative technology that enables direct labeling of antibodies, proteins, peptides or other biomolecules with only 30 seconds hands-on time.

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Antibody Purification Guide

Innova Biosciences specializes in easy to use bioconjugation kits which enable the direct labeling of antibodies or proteins with enzymes, fluorescent labels, biotin, streptavidin, gold nanoparticles, latex beads or oligonucleotides. Unfortunately, many antibodies are provided in buffers which contain additives that are incompatible with labeling technologies, making puri cation a key consideration prior to carrying…

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The Biotin Streptavidin Interaction

The affinity of streptavidin for biotin is the strongest non-covalent biological interaction known, with a dissociation constant (Kd) in the femtomolar range. Each streptavidin monomer can bind one biotin molecule, allowing a streptavidin protein to maximally bind four biotins. The streptavidin-biotin interaction In addition to the strength of the interaction, the binding of streptavidin to…

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Guide to labeling your primary antibody

Antibodies are used to detect and quantify antigens in techniques such as flow cytometry, ELISA, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and lateral flow. The antibody that binds to the antigen is called a ‘primary antibody’ and it confers specificity to the assay. Most types of immunoassays also incorporate a ‘label’ whose purpose is to provide measurability. Assays…

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Simplifying Antibody Conjugation Process

Antibodies are widely employed in the quantification of antigens in complex biological samples. Using techniques such as Western blotting, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry researchers are able to measure a single antigen, or perhaps a limited number of antigens, in each sample. In the post-genomics era, advances in multiplex immunoassay technologies now allow scores or even hundreds…

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Tech tip – Interfering buffer additives

Lightning-Link® from Innova Biosciences is an innovative technology that enables direct labeling of antibodies, proteins, peptides or any other biomolecule which has free amine groups. These easy to use kits require just 30 seconds hands-on time and, with no separation steps involved, 100% of the biomolecule is recovered. Lightning-Link® conjugates are highly stable, and with…

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How and when to use the thiol conjugation approach: an introductory guide

A traditional method for linking proteins to molecules relies on the formation of a stable covalent bond between thiol (R-SH) and maleimide groups. When these functional groups are positioned on separate biomolecules (A & B) a hybrid conjugate AB (but not AA or BB) will form. Despite other systems of conjugation being available (for instance,…

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A-Z Guide to Fluorochromes

Download a Free Copy     Lightning-Link® fluorescent antibody and protein labeling kits allow you to covalently label any antibody in under 20 minutes with only 30 seconds hands-on time. We currently have over 35 labels in our range of fluorescent dyes. This guide provides a general overview of each fluorochrome in our range including…

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Application Guides

Immunohistochemistry

Immunohistochemistry (IHC), or immunohistochemical staining, is a technique which employs antibodies to detect antigens in cells within a tissue section. This application is used to locate specific antigens in tissue sections with labeled antibodies based on antigen-antibody interactions. The immune reactive products can be visualized by a marker including fluorescent dyes, enzymes, radioactive elements or…

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The advantages of tandem dyes

A significant number of laboratory applications rely on the use of fluorescently-labeled antibodies.

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A Beginner’s Guide to Flow Cytometry

Flow Cytometry is a widely used method for cell analysis which, for the novice, can appear daunting due to the complexity of the experimental approach and data analysis.

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Development of an Immuno-PCR Assay

Download a Free Copy Discover how the Immuno-PCR assay combines the specificity of an ELISA and the signal amplification of PCR. This new application guide will provide you with a good overview of this application. It covers the following: What is Immuno-PCR? Development of an Immuno-PCR assay to quantify Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) The main…

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ELISA Principles, Formats & Streamlining

Download a Free Copy This guide provides a comprehensive overview of ELISA, describing the principles and different formats of this highly sensitive and flexible application. It also discusses methods of optimizing and streamlining your ELISA. Find out more: What is an ELISA? What are the advantages of an ELISA? Different assay formats What are the…

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Fast, Simple and Cost Effective Immunoassay Development

SPARCL (Spatial Proximity Analyte Reagent Capture Luminescence) is a novel homogeneous proximity assay technology utilizing flash chemiluminescence detection without solid support or wash steps. This format allows for rapid immunoassay development, in as little as 2 days. The homogenous format promotes fast antibody to antigen binding kinetics, allowing 30 minute incubation times. With the SPARCL…

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Guide to Lateral Flow Immunoassays

Download a Free Copy This guide provides a great overview of lateral flow immunoassays including: The evolution of lateral flow immunoassays Components Process options Assay formats Advantages & disadvantages of lateral flow immunoassays Nanoparticles for lateral flow immunoassays

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Guide to Western blotting

Download a free copy The Western blot technique requires samples to be resolved on the basis of size through Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), following which they are transferred to, and immobilized on, a membrane prior to antibody-based detection. Find in this guide: The main stages of a Western blot Sample preparation Gel…

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Thiol conjugation reactions and creating and quantifying protein thiols

 Download this guide, if you want to know more about: The thiol-maleimide approach and its advantages The difference between thiol groups and disulfides and how thiol groups are generated How to find out if your sample contains free thiol groups Why thiol reducing agents such as Mercaptoethanol, DTT and TCEP are not interchangeable and how…

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Enzyme Guides

Enzyme Conjugates for IVD Applications

Enzyme-antibody conjugates are key components of a variety of IVD products, including enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, lateral flow immunochromatographic devices, and kits based on immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. The analyte of interest is detected by the antibody component of the conjugate, and measurability is provided by the enzyme. The assay signal is either proportional or…

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Enzyme unit definitions and assay design

Download a Free Copy This guide explains key concepts such as ‘enzyme units’ and ‘enzyme activity’ in simple terms and discusses enzyme assay design and the importance of operating in the ‘linear range’. There are also some tips on setting up assay controls and subtracting blanks are discussed. This guide covers:This guide covers: Definitions of…

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PiColorLock™ detection reagent

The phosphate detection reagent, PiColorLock™, changes color in the presence of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and this property can be exploited to measure the activity of any enzyme that generates Pi. The reagent is applicable to a large number of enzymes including ATPases, GTPases, phosphatases, heat-shock proteins and DNA unwinding proteins. The unique formulation of PiColorLock™…

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Gold nanoparticles

Gold nanoparticles from Innova Biosciences

Each antibody is unique and it is important to have a range of options for making nanoparticle conjugates to achieve the best possible performance in diagnostic assays. Antibodies may be attached to coated gold nanoparticles using simple covalent conjugation technologies or with traditional passive techniques.

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