Gold Conjugation Kits
A Revolution in Nano-Gold Conjugation
InnovaCoat® GOLD products are ‘conjugation friendly’ nanoparticles with a proprietary surface coat that greatly enhances colloidal stability and permits easy covalent attachment of a variety of molecules, including antibodies, analytes and other biomolecules.
In the case of immuno-gold conjugates, the antibody can be attached irreversibly without the need for extensive trials at different values of pH and/or salt concentration, as is typical of traditional ‘passive’ binding methods.
In the case of analyte-gold conjugates, the multipoint attachment of the polymer to the gold surface ensures that the analyte is firmly anchored. By contrast, direct attachment of analytes to gold surfaces by self-assembly techniques is far less stable and unwanted desorption is a significant problem.
InnovaCoat® GOLD nanoparticles can be provided in a variety of formats (e.g. 10 OD liquid or as lyophilized nanoparticles) formulated to allow a one-step reaction with antibodies.
The kits available are designed for research use and for the development of diagnostic products, specifically for the screening of potential antibodies or small scale ‘proof of principle’ studies. Please contact us if you require any additional information and to discuss your bulk or custom conjugation requirements.
Please view the video below for a visual representation of InnovaCoat® GOLD.
InnovaCoat® GOLD conjugates can be used in a variety of assays including lateral flow tests; such tests are used for detection (qualitative or semi-quantitative) of a diverse range of analytes including antigens, antibodies and nucleic acids. Lateral flow assays have many benefits over traditional methods for instance several analytes can be tested simultaneously on the same strip, and due to the simplicity of the method the assay may be performed by non-specialists.
As well as avoiding the optimisation steps, InnovaCoat® GOLD conjugates demonstrate enhanced sensitivity when compared to the traditional passive methods - please see comparative graph below.
Competitive lateral flow assay comparing antibodies conjugated to 40nm gold particles by a traditional passive method against those conjugated covalently using InnovaCoat® GOLD.
- Proprietary surface coat
- Covalently link antibodies and analytes
- Simple conjugation processes
- Different surface chemistries
- Custom labeling service available
- Antibody-GOLD conjugates in just 15 minutes
- Enhanced assay sensitivity
- Protective coat prevents metal-antibody interactions
- Rapid screening of multiple antibodies for assay development
- No pH titrations
- Fully scalable - from R&D to Production
- Custom InnovaCoat® labeling services
What can I do if my antibody preparation contains interfering substances?
The simplest procedure is to dialyse the antibody against a suitable buffer. Relatively weak buffers (e.g. 20mM) are preferred so that the pH conditions of the covalent reaction are not significantly altered upon addition of the antibody. See also the comments in Section 3 of the protocol. If dialysis is not practical you can use other popular methods of buffer exchange if required e.g. desalting columns.
Does the antibody bind to the metal surface?
No. The protective surface coat completely shields the metal surface and prevents direct metal-antibody interactions. For this reason, you cannot use InnovaCoat GOLD for passive conjugation of antibodies.
Can antibodies from different species be used?
Yes, the InnovaCoat system has been tested with antibodies from a variety of species including mouse, rabbit, goat and sheep.
What type of linkage to gold is formed?
The antibody becomes covalently and irreversibly attached via lysine residues to the InnovaCoat surface.
Can antibody fragments be conjugated?
Yes. One of the advantages of the protective coat is that it is less likely than a bare metal surface to cause denaturation and loss of affinity of the antibody fragments.
What if I need bulk material?
The kit that you have purchased is a convenience product for rapid production of small quantities of conjugate for screening purposes. Bulk quantities of InnovaCoat GOLD can be provided in a variety of formats. Please enquire.
Is the kit suitable for conjugating analytes and other small molecules?
Yes, but please contact Innova technical services. Depending on the functional groups on your analyte you may need a different type of surface or different chemistry for optimal results.
InnovaCoat® GOLD Biotin
InnovaCoat® GOLD Streptavidin
InnovaCoat® GOLD Optimisation Service
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